Part 2 Research

Hear Make Heard 19/01/18

Debra Hurd's paintings on Bach show streams of undulating staves filled with notes across brightly coloured pages as a way of visually evoking the music through tone and variation. It made me reflect on the differences between a work which exists in time and a work which exists on a flat 2 dimensional surface and the potential intersections between the two. I was not sure about Hurd's literal imaging of the score itself, and feel that although the saturated colour gives a sense of the music and its meaning the notes float ambiguously - and soundlessly - in space.

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Building Blocks 10/01/18

I began to think of the alphabet itself as a series of building blocks, a series of 26 signs, or blocks, from which an almost infinite number of words can be created. Each block on its own is insignificant, almost meaningless, but together they structure language, civilization even. I considered the historical development of the alphabet and of writing in the context of the earliest civilizations. I also thought about the way that such blocks were used to enable historians today to learn more about the past, as with the Rosetta Stone (https://blog.britishmuseum.org/everything-you-ever-wanted-to-know-about-the-rosetta-stone/) which enabled historians to use text to interpret other texts.

 

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Early 20th century- Eric Gill

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Eric Gill was an english sculptor, typeface designer and printmaker who was associated with Arts and Crafts movement

https://www.bookdepository.com/Beauty-Looks-After-Herself-Eric-Gill/9781887593441

https://www.flickr.com/photos/34564322@N03/6908465641



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Late 20th century- Jonathan Barnbrook

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Jonathan Barnbrook is a British Graphic Designer, filmaker and typographer. He trained in St Martin's School of Art and the Royal College of Art.



http://artukraine.com.ua/eng/a/dizayn-kak-zhiznetvorchestvo--dzhonatan-barnbruk-i-ego-studiya-barnbrook/#.WlO6f9TLfmp

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Non-lining Typography

As with most elements of professional typography and typesetting, the devil is in the detail. The reader should be oblivious to everything but the narrative of the story, and this includes the appearance of numerals. The choice is non-lining or lining figures within the body of the text.

Non-lining figures, also called lowercase figures, are designed to sit within body copy as they simulate the x-height of the lowercase letters. Not only is the physical proportion of the numeral considered, their design also allows for particular numerals to extend above or below the line, which helps them blend in with the surrounding letters.
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Cap-Height Typography

In typography, cap height refers to the height of a capital letter above the baseline for a particular typeface. It specifically refers to the height of capital letters that are flat—such as H or I—as opposed to round letters such as O, or pointed letters like A, both of which may display overshoot. The height of the small letters is referred to as x-height.
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Counter Typography

In typography, a counter is the area of a letter that is entirely or partially enclosed by a letter form or a symbol (the counter-space/the hole of). Letters containing closed counters include A, B, D, O, P, Q, R, a, b, d, e, g, o, p, and q. Letters containing open counters include c, f, h, i, s etc. The digits 0, 4, 6, 8, and 9 also possess a counter. An aperture is the opening between an open counter and the outside of the letter.

Open and closed apertures-
Different typeface styles have different tendencies to use open or more closed apertures. This design decision is particularly important for sans-serif typefaces, which can have very wide strokes making the apertures very narrow indeed.
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Ball Terminal

Definition: In typography, the terminal is a type of curve. Many sources consider a terminal to be just the end (straight or curved) of any stroke that doesn’t include a serif (which can include serif fonts, such as the little stroke at the end of “n” as shown in the illustration). Some curved bits of tails, links, ears, and loops are considered terminals using the broader definition.

Ball terminal is a combination of a dot (tail dot) or circular stroke and the curved bit (hook) at the end of some tails and the end of some arms (a, c, f). Beak terminal refers to the sharp spur or beak at the end of a letterform’s arm and the curved bit (terminal) between the beak and the arm.
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Terminal Typography

Definition: In typography, the terminal is a type of curve. Many sources consider a terminal to be just the end (straight or curved) of any stroke that doesn’t include a serif (which can include serif fonts, such as the little stroke at the end of “n” as shown in the illustration). Some curved bits of tails, links, ears, and loops are considered terminals using the broader definition.
Ball terminal is a combination of a dot (tail dot) or circular stroke and the curved bit (hook) at the end of some tails and the end of some arms (a, c, f). Beak terminal refers to the sharp spur or beak at the end of a letterform’s arm and the curved bit (terminal) between the beak and the arm.
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Typography B bowl

Definition: In typography, the curved part of the character that encloses the circular or curved parts (counter) of some letters such as d, b, o, D, and B is the bowl. Some sources call any parts of a letter enclosing a space a bowl, including both parts of a double-storey g and the straight stem on a D or B. The curved strokes of a C are sometimes also referred to as bowls although they aren’t closed.
The shape and size of the counter and bowl can affect readability and is also an identifying factor for some typefaces.At small sizes or at low resolution the bowls of some letters may fill in and appear solid. Print at a larger size, higher resolution, or change to a different typeface if this becomes an issue. Heavy typefaces or ones with normally small bowls and counters are especially prone to closing up.
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Typography Double Story

The double-storey a is a lowercase a that consists of a closed bowl at the bottom and a stem with a finial arm at the top hanging over the bowl and creating a partially enclosed area above the bowl.
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Typography baseline

In typography, the baseline is the imaginary line upon which a line of text rests. In most typefaces, the descenders on characters such as g or p extend down below the baseline while curved letters such as c or o extend ever-so-slightly below the baseline. The baseline is the point from which other elements of type are measured including x-height and leading. The baseline is also significant in the alignment of drop caps and other page elements.
In typography and penmanship, the baseline is the line upon which most letters “sit” and below which descenders extend.
In the example to the right, the letter ‘p’ has a descender; the other letters sit on the (red) baseline.
Most, though not all, typefaces are similar in the following ways as regards the baseline:
capital letters sit on the baseline. The most common exceptions are the J and Q.
Lining figures (see Arabic numerals) sit on the baseline.
The following text figures have descenders: 3 4 5 7 9.
The following lowercase letters have descenders: g j p q y.
Glyphs with rounded lower extents (0 3 5 6 8 c C G J o O Q U) dip very slightly below the baseline (“overshoot”) to create the optical illusion that they sit on the baseline. Peter Karow’s Digital Typefaces suggests that typical overshoot is about 1.5%.
The vertical distance of the base lines of consecutive lines in a paragraph is also known as line height or leading, although the latter can also refer to the baseline distance minus the font size.
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Typography Ligatures

Typography ligatures is when two or more letters combined into one character make a ligature. In typography some ligatures represent specific sounds or words such as the AE or æ diphthong ligature. Other ligatures are primarily to make type more attractive on the page such as the fl and fi ligatures. In most cases, a ligature is only available in extended characters sets or special expert sets of fonts.
Ligatures used to improve the appearance of type are usually character pairs or triplets that have features that tend to overlap when used together. The ligature creates a smoother transition or connection between characters by connecting crossbars, removing dots over the i, or otherwise altering the shape of the characters.
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Made to Persuade- Elephant trophies

According to the news, Trump decided to lift ban on elephant trophies as his sons love to hunt. According to his meeting in Tanzania with the hunting associations, hunting to kill elephants will be allowed in Zimbabwe and Zambia. Trump also wants to allow bringing back the trophies (elephant heads). The population of African elephants fell by some 30 percent between 2007 and 2014, with poaching the primary reason for the decline, according to a report released last year. Advocates for big-game hunting contend that it can help preserve wildlife by generating income for poor countries that can promote conservation and improve the lives of impoverished people.
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The Wellcome Collection (Primary Research)- Graphic score

The Wellcome Collection's show Can Graphic Design Save your Life highlights the importance of graphic design as a way to communicate on the deepest level. The powerful connection between health and the text and imagery used to communicate with the public shows that most of us are completely dependent on graphic design in order to understand our bodies and to fix them when something goes wrong. What is the pill with out its packaging? A dangerous drug like any other and to be avoided. The show reveals that it is graphic design that gives the pill its sugar coating letting us know what is safe and what is to be avoided.

The show also explores the ethics of big pharmaceutical companies in controlling our access to drugs and the connection between graphic design and branding. This puts designers in tricky positions at the service of their international employers as they seek to communicate within the constraints of the industry. Smoking is a key area focused on in the show. In the past advertising agencies such as Saatchi and Saatchi created slick campaigns for cigarette brands such as Silk Cut and Benson and Hedges. The show reveals how this has more recently mutated into attempts to discourage smokers through a redesign of packaging to focus not on glamour and lifestyle but on the ravaged and broken body created by long term cigarette consumption.

Visiting the show was an eye opening experience in revealing the range of commercial applications of graphic design.

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Picnic

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Hear Make Heard 16/01/18

I was inspired by Kandinsky and his piece 'Composition VII'. It is one of my favourite paintings as it conveys his emotions in different colours. Even though it looks quite genuine, he had a meaning behind each colour. I like a way of having hidden meanings and am thinking of coorporating it into my work somehow. Kandinsky believed that total abstraction offered the possibility for profound, transcendental expression and that copying from nature only interfered with this process. Highly inspired to create art that communicated a universal sense of spirituality, he innovated a pictorial language that only loosely related to the outside world, but expressed volumes about the artist's inner experience. His visual vocabulary developed through three phases, shifting from his early, representational canvases and their divine symbolism to his rapturous and operatic compositions, to his late, geometric and biomorphic flat planes of color.

"Of all the arts, abstract painting is the most difficult. It demands that you know how to draw well, that you have a heightened sensitivity for composition and for colors, and that you be a true poet. This last is essential." - Kandinsky 

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Building Blocks 10/01/18

In order to create my own series of building blocks I felt it was necessary to integrate these into a narrative of our time, meaning they had to reflect contemporary life. I also wanted them to relate to other objects, and to be themselves constructed of one object variously arranged. As such, I thought about the work of the Surrealist photographer Man Ray, who created objects from different every day objects in order to derive new meaning from them. Specifically I considered his Man and Woman made from kitchen utensils, as a form of ready made (https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/283274). This led me to experiment with the use of scissors and tape.

 

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Building Blocks 09/01/18

The use of the term ‘building blocks’ as a way to describe this brief is interesting given that the it implies a fundamental element from which to construct something. Building blocks are therefore primary fundamentals that can be arranged and manipulated to create different structures. Building blocks are therefore not set but permanently mutable, enabling different combinations of the same elements that create completely different impressions. This reminded me of a short story by Jose Luis Borges, The Library of Babel in which he discussed an infinite library containing books composed of 25 characters many of which were nonsense but which contained the whole universe.

https://libraryofbabel.info/Borges/libraryofbabel.pdf

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Mid 20th century- Hurb Lubalin

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Hurb Lubalin was an american graphic designer.  Most people recognize the name Herb Lubalin in association with the typeface Avant Garde. And he was the typographer and designer behind its creation, after the success of Avant Garde Magazine and its typographic logo.

It was again Herb who pushed the limits that restricted the magazines of the time in their form and content. Among his other achievements was giving inventive corporate identities to Mother & Child, LSC&P, and Marriage and Families.

https://www.designcrawl.com/herb-lubalin-prolific-graphic-designer-time/

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Leading Typography

The definition of leading is: the distance between two baselines of lines of type. The word ‘leading’ originates from the strips of lead hand-typesetters used to use to space out lines of text evenly. The word leading has stuck, but essentially it’s a typographer’s term for line spacing.

If you’re working in design software like InDesign, the program will set a default leading value whenever you type up more than one line of text. However, this is not usually generous enough, and can make paragraphs look squashed. This works fine if you’re creating a crammed front page for a newspaper, but less well for most other purposes.

Increasing the leading allows the text to breathe and makes it appear instantly more attractive. For readers it has practical advantages too—increasing leading makes text easier to read, and it’s also kinder on reader’s eyes over longer periods of reading.
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Typography Kerning

Kerning is the process of increasing or decreasing the space between individual characters, adjusting the position of letters in relation to others. It’s commonly used on prominent pieces of text, such as headlines and logos. Note that tracking, on the other hand, is used to adjust the letter-spacing uniformly over a range of characters (read more about tracking).
Although the process of tweaking kerning may be very subtle, it can have significant effects on the legibility and overall presentation of text.
Designers kern letters to improve the overall symmetry of a word or phrase, which the default tracking settings provided in the font file may not be able to achieve alone.
As well as having an instant beautifying effect on text, kerning can also have an effect on the readability of the text. When done well, words just read better.
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Descender Typography

The portion of some lowercase letters, such as g and y, that extends or descends below the baseline is the descender. The length and shape of the descender can affect readability of lines of type and is an identifying factor for some typefaces.

The descenders of some letters may touch or almost touch letters in the line below causing awkward or distracting patterns. This is most likely to happen or be obvious when a line of text with long descenders is above a line of text with tall ascenders and capital letters. Some solutions include: Increase the leading (line spacing) between lines of type; Choose a different typeface; For headlines and subheads, some careful editing/re-wording can eliminate the problem; Changing the alignment of the text may also help.

Also Known As-  extender, tail, loop
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Typography Ascender

Definition: In typography, the upward vertical stem on some lowercase letters, such as h and b, that extends above the x-height is the ascender. The height of the ascenders is an identifying characteristic of many typefaces.
The ascenders of some letters may touch or almost touch letters in the line above causing awkward or distracting patterns. This is most likely to happen or be obvious when a line of text with tall ascenders is below a line of text with long descenders. To resolve the problem of touching ascenders and descenders you can: Increase the leading (line spacing) between lines of type; Choose a different typeface; For headlines and subheads, some careful editing/re-wording can eliminate the problem; Changing the alignment of the text may also help.
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Typography X-height

The x-height refers to the distance between the baseline and the top of the lower case line in a typeface. Typically, this is the height of the letter x in the font (the source of the term). Seemingly similar typefaces may in fact have very different x-height proportions. For example, the lowercase characters in the Gill Sans typeface family are noticeably smaller than those of the ITC Avant Garde Gothic typeface family. The lowercase letters in the Plantin typeface family are considered to have a relatively generous x-height, while those in the Bernhard Modern family are usually considered small.
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Typography Stress

In typography, stress is the angle of inwards pressure onto a letter, which makes the letter thinner in some parts in relation to the angle of axis.
Vertical stress means that the pressure/compression takes place on a vertical axis, while the weight is located on a horizontal axis. In other words, the verticals of the letters are thick, while the horizontals are thin strokes.
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Typography- Serif

Although serifs are considered to be decorative, their appearance may well serve a higher purpose. Serif typefaces have historically been credited with increasing both the readability and reading speed of long passages of text because they help the eye travel across a line, especially if lines are long or have relatively open word spacing (as with some justified type).

Others dispute this viewpoint, asserting that what we read most (serif text), we read best. This might very well account for the popularity and dominance of serif typefaces in the U.S. for lengthy text in print, including books and newspapers. That said, the fact remains that many sans serif typefaces exist that are more legible at any size than some serif designs. So whichever style you choose, take note of the particular characteristics and overall legibility of the design, including specific weights and roman vs. italic.
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Made to Persuade- the wish tree

In January 2017, visitors to the Guggenheim museum were invited to write their wishes and hang them on Yoko Ono's wish tree. The tree was installed as a spirit of community and expression of freedom. It recieved 954 wishes in three days. Every wish was sent to the studio and later on Ono incorporates them in her work "Imagine Peace tower" in Reykjavik, Iceland. I thought of creating a christmas tree with the same concept of collecting peoples wishes for Christmas. During the crit someone told me that i had to do something with the wishes. My idea was to burn them in a place somewhere special or burry them with crystals to increase the energy of the wish.
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The wish tree

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Graphic Score Research

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Graphic Score Research

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